Conference interpreting: concerns oral communication only. The task of an interpreter is to render the meaning and intention of the speaker. The interpreter always speaks in the first person singular.
Simultaneous interpreting: interpreting that is provided in real time (as the speaker delivers his speech). In this form of interpreting the interpreter works with special equipment (sound-proof booth, sets of headphones and microphones).
Consecutive interpreting: interpreting that is provided when the speaker had finished speaking. The interpreter uses a special system of notes that enables him/her to remember the most important aspects of the speech.
Chuchotage (whispering): a form of simultaneous interpreting, the interpreter whispers to the delegate’s ear e.g. during a conference. This form of interpreting is often offered in order to save time when interpreting is required by maximum two or three people in the room.
Language combination: the number of languages that the interpreter may work with. A conference interpreter usually has a language combination that is called ABC. A stands for his/her mother tongue. The interpreter interprets into language B from his/her mother tongue and the other way round. He/ she may interpret from language C into his/her mother tongue. Language B is an active language while C is a passive language. The idea of language combinations is used by the DG Interpretation of the European Commission.
Active and passive languages: an active language (B) is a language that an interpreter can use both ways (interpret from the language into his/her mother tongue and the other way round). A passive language is a foreign language that the interpreter may interpret from (but not the other way round).
Liaison: a form of interpreting similar to consecutive interpreting. However, in this mode of interpreting the length of speech chunks is much shorter. The interpreter does not need to take notes.
Translation: the process of written translation. It is a complex process and it differs depending on the topic of the text e.g. literary translation, technical translation etc.
Certified translation: translation made by a certified translator (one that can be found on the list provided by The Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Poland).
Language skills: basic language skills any student of a foreign language should acquire, namely: reading, listening, speaking and writing.
CLT (Communicative language teaching): a combined method of teaching English as a foreign language, currently seen as most effective, it is based on a balanced training of the key language skills of reading, listening, speaking and writing.
FCE: a certificate acknowledging language skills on an upper-intermediate level. In order to obtain the certificate one needs to pass the exam organized by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.
CAE: a certificate acknowledging language skills on an advanced level. In order to obtain the certificate one needs to pass the exam organized by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.
CPE: a certificate acknowledging language skills of a proficient user of English. In order to obtain the certificate one needs to pass the exam organized by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.